Boats to Burn

Table of Contents

Preliminary Pages
Chapter 1: Contested Rights of Access
Chapter 2: Bajo Settlement History
Origin and Dispersion of the Sama-Bajau
The Tukang Besi Islands
Bajo Settlements in the Tukang Besi Islands
The History of Bajo Settlement in the Tukang Besi Islands
The Kahar Muzakkar Rebellion and Bajo Migration
The Village of Pepela, Roti Island
Bajo Settlement at Pepela
Chapter 3: The Maritime World of the Bajo
Bajo World Views
Maritime Livelihoods
Maritime Technology
Rituals of Boat Construction
Chapter 4: Bajo Voyages to the Timor Sea
Macassans, Malays and Europeans in Northern Australia
The Bajo Encounter with Tuan Robin
The Bajo Encounter with British Airmen in 1936
Bajo Fishing in the Timor Sea Before World War II
The Bajo Encounter with Australian Scientists in 1949
Bajo Fishing Activity in the Northwest, 1950s–1970s
Chapter 5: Australian Maritime Expansion
Australian Government Perspectives in the Post-War Period
New Bilateral Arrangements with Indonesia
Apprehension, Detention and Confiscation, 1985–95
Chapter 6: Bajo Responses to Australian Policy
The Growing Focus on Sharks
Bajo Perceptions of Australian Policy
Shark Fins and Longlines
Chapter 7: Sailing, Fishing and Trading in 1994
Preparations for Departure
The Bajo Fleet in Pepela
The Fishing Grounds
The Economics of Shark Fishing
Chapter 8: An Evaluation of Australian Policy
What is ‘Traditional’ Activity?
How Effective is Australian Policy?
New Policy Approaches
Appendix A: Sources on Indonesian Fishing in Australian Waters
Appendix B: Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia Regarding the Operations of Indonesian Traditional Fishermen in Areas of the Australian Exclusive Fishing Zone and Continental Shelf (7 November 1974)
Appendix C: Agreed Minutes of Meeting Between Officials of Australia and Indonesia on Fisheries (29 April 1989)

List of Figures

Map 2-1: Area in which Sama-Bajau speakers are found in Southeast Asia.
Map 2-2: Settlements in the Tukang Besi Islands, Southeast Sulawesi Province.
Plate 2-1: The villages of Mola Utara and Mola Selatan, Wanci Island.
Plate 2-2: The mosque and houses along the main canal in Mola Selatan.
Plate 2-3: Houses lining a narrow canal in central Mola Utara.
Plate 2-4: Recently built houses on the northern end of Mola Utara.
Plate 2-5: Low tide in Mantigola.
Map 2-3: The island of Roti, East Nusa Tenggara Province.
Plate 2-6: The Bajo settlement at Tanjung Pasir.
Plate 3-1: Healer restoring the sumangaq of a sick person.
Plate 3-2: A perahu lambo.
Plate 3-3: A perahu layar motor.
Figure 3-1: Types of Indonesian perahu hull forms and rigs.
Figure 3-2: Stem, keel and stern post layout and order of joining.
Plate 3-4: Gathering for prayers before drilling the navel for a perahu motor.
Plate 3-5: Preparing to launch the boat into the water.
Map 4-1: Key locations in northern Australia.
Map 5-1: Location of permitted areas of access for Indonesian fishermen in the Australian Fishing Zone under the 1974 Memorandum of Understanding.
Map 5-2: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve.
Map 5-3: Areas of prohibited access at Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve.
Figure 5-1: AFMA Classification of Indonesian perahu types found operating in Australian waters.
Plate 5-1: The recreation building and accommodation block at Willie Creek.
Plate 5-2: Navy officers inspecting the catch of the Wisma Jaya, 1990.
Plate 5-3: Bajo crew confined to their perahu lambo in Darwin Harbour.
Plate 5-4: Confiscated perahu lambo driven into the embankment in Darwin.
Plate 5-5: Boats dragged out of the water onto the land.
Plate 5-6: Boats destroyed by burning.
Map 6-1: Bajo shark fishing grounds.
Plate 6-1: A Mola Bajo fisherman photographed in August 1974.
Plate 6-2: First Bajo house built on Tanjung Pasir, November 1992.
Figure 6-1: Types of cuts of black shark fin.
Figure 6-2: Diagram of a set longline and its components.
Plate 7-1: Prayers performed before moving a perahu lambo from the village.
Plate 7-2: Moving the boat through the canal into the harbour.
Plate 7-3: A prayer at the rudder stock and tiller of the Tunas Muda.
Plate 7-4: Bajo perahu lambo anchored off Tanjung Pasir, October 1994.
Plate 7-5: Setting sail from Pepela.
Plate 7-6: Bajo sailing to Mola in early December 1994.
Plate 7-7: Squally west monsoon conditions on the return voyage to Mola.
Figure 7-1: Sixteen-point Bajo wind compass.
Figure 7-2: Location and names of shark fins.
Plate 7-8: A set of black shark fins.
Plate 7-9: A set of white shark fins.
Figure 8-1: Total number of boat apprehensions and total number of Type 2 boat apprehensions, 1975–97.
Map 8-1: International maritime boundaries in the Timor and Arafura seas.

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