US Army in WWII-Triumph in the Phils

Source: http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/USA-P-Triumph/index.html

Contents

Foreword vii
The Author viii
Preface ix
PART ONE
Plans and Preparations
Chapter Page
I. The Debate Over Luzon 3
The Strategic Background 3
Luzon versus Formosa 8
II. The Plan for Invasion 18
The Concept 18
Changing the Target Dates 22
Tactical Plans 26
The Logistical Plan 38
III. Preliminary Operations and The Approach 43
Airfields on Mindoro 43
Diversionary Activities 53
The Approach to Luzon 54
PART TWO
Invasion
IV. Establishing the Beachhead 73
The Assault: S-day–S+2 73
The Beachhead Through S+2 85
V. The Enemy 88
Japanese Strategy in the Philippines 88
The Japanese on Luzon 90
Dispositions in Northern Luzon 97
VI. Expanding the Hold 104
I Corps Meets the Enemy 104
XIV Corps Probes South 115
VII. The Logistics of the Invasion 118
Unloading the Assault Convoys 118
Inland Supply and Construction 128
PART THREE
The Central Plains
VIII. Redeployment and Tactical Plans 139
New American Plans 139
Japanese Redispositions 143
IX. Securing the Sixth Army’s Base Area 147
The Fight for the Routes 3-11 Junction 147
Binalonan and San Manuel: The I Corps Center 155
Advancing the I Corps Right 160
The Achievements Analyzed 165
X. The Capture of Clark Field 167
Into Contact With the Kembu Group 167
The First Attacks 171
A Planning Interlude 179
Closing With the Kembu Group’s MLR 183
The Attack Through the End of January 186
XI. Protecting XIV Corps’ Rear and Flanks 187
The Problem and the Plan 187
The Capture of San Jose 190
San Jose to the East Coast 201
The Destruction of the Kembu Group 202
Epilogue 206
PART FOUR
Securing the Manila Bay Area
XII. Manila: The Approach March 211
XIV Corps’ Drive South 211
The Approach From the South 221
Support Operations During the Approach March 232
XIII. Manila: The Defenders and the Defenses 237
The City 237
The Japanese Defenses 240
XIV. Isolating the Battlefield 249
The Concept of the Attack 249
Operations North of the Pasig 251
Across the River and Into the Buildings 258
Encircling the City 265
XV. The Drive Toward Intramuros 271
Iwabuchi Entrapped 271
The Battles at the Strongpoints 275
XVI. Manila: The Last Resistance 291
Intramuros 291
The Government Buildings 301
Conclusions 306
XVII. Back to Bataan 309
The Plans for Opening Manila Bay 309
Sealing Off Bataan: A Study in Command 313
Clearing Bataan Peninsula 331
XVIII. Corregidor 335
The Plan of Assault 335
Securing “The Rock” 340
XIX. Manila Bay–Minor Operations 351
The South Shore 351
The Small Islands 352
PART FIVE
The Shimbu Group and the Visayan Passages
XX. American Plans for Post-Manila Operations 361
XXI. The Reduction of the Shimbu Group–Phase I: Turning the Shimbu Left 367
Plans 367
The XIV Corps Offensive 371
The Collapse of the Shimbu Left 384
Conclusions 388
XXII. The Reduction of the Shimbu Group– Phase II: The Seizure of Wawa and Ipo Dams 391
Protecting the Right Rear 391
Breakthrough in the Center 392
The Seizure of Ipo Dam 403
The Destruction of the Kogure Detachment 415
The End of the Shimbu Group 418
XXIII. Securing the Visayan Passages 423
Southern Luzon 423
Clearing the Smaller Islands 435
The Bicol Peninsula Operation 439
PART SIX
The Conquest of Northern Luzon
XXIV. Northern Luzon: The Situation and the Plans 449
The Terrain and the Defenses in Northern Luzon 449
The Sixth Army’s Plan 457
XXV. The Collapse of the Baguio Front 468
The 33d Division’s Holding Mission 468
The Drive to Baguio 479
The Baguio Front to the End of May 477
XXVI. The Bambang Front–I: The Villa Verde Trail 491
The Situation and the Plans 491
Prologue to Stalemate 492
The Battle for Salacsac Pass No. 2 498
Salacsac Pass No. 1 to Imugan 505
XXVII. The Bambang Front–II: The 25th Division on Route 5 512
The 25th Division’s Drive Begins 512
Objective: Balete Pass 516
The Envelopment of Balete Pass 530
Sante Fe and the Villa Verde Trail 535
Conclusions 537
XXVIII. Action at the Northern Apex 541
Northwestern Luzon 541
Laoag, Vigan, and the Araki Force 546
The Fight for Bessang Pass 547
Results of USAFIP(NL) Operations 555
XXIX. Pursuit in Northern Luzon 558
The Shobu Group Withdrawal Plans 558
Sixth Army–I Corps Pursuit Plans 561
Compressing the Shobu Group 562
The End in Northern Luzon 572
PART SEVEN
The Southern Philippines
XXX. The Campaign Begins 583
The Plans and the Forces 583
Airfields on Palawan 589
Zamboanga 591
The Sulu Archipelago 597
Zamboanga-Sulu Airfield Development 599
XXXI. The Central Visayan Islands 601
Panay and Guimaras 601
Northern Negros 604
Cebu 608
Bohol and Southern Negros 617
Conclusions 618
XXXII. The Conquest of Eastern Mindanao 620
Plans, Preparations, and Penetration 620
The Destruction of the 100th Division 627
The Collapse of 30th Division Resistance 636
Mop-up and Pursuit in Eastern Mindanao 642
The End of the War in Eastern Mindanao 647
PART EIGHT
Conclusion
Conclusion 651
APPENDICES
A. Organization for the Invasion of Luzon 659
1. Generalized Organization of the Southwest Pacific Area, December 1944 660
2. Organization of Ground Combat Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area, 9 January 1945 661
3. Organization of the Sixth Army for the Invasion of Luzon 662
4. Organization of the Allied Naval Forces, Southwest Pacific Area, for the Lingayen Gulf Operation 663
5. Organization of the Amphibious Forces for the Lingayen Gulf Operation 664
6. Operational Organization of Allied Air Commands in the Pacific, 9 January 1945 665
B. Composition of the Landing Waves, Lingayen Assault, 9 January 1945 666
C. Japanese Command Structure in the Philippines 669
Simplified Organization, November 1944 671
Organization as of 9 January 1945 672
D. Organization of Japanese Forces At Manila 673
E. Shimbu Group Order of Battle 674
F. Strength and Deployment of Japanese in the Southern Philippines 682
G. Japanese Order of Battle in Eastern Mindanao 684
1. 100th Division, 17 April 1945 684
2. 100th Division Reorganization of Mid-May 687
3. 30th Division, 17 April 1945 688
4. Order of Battle of Japanese Forces Along the Northwestern Section of the Kibawe-Talomo Trail 691
H. The Cost of the Campaigns 692
1. Battle Casualties of the U.S. Army Ground Combat Forces, Luzon and the Southern Philippines, 1945 692
2. Japanese Casualties, Luzon and the Southern Philippines, 1945 694
The Sources: A Critical Note 695
Glossary 714
Basic Military Map Symbols 720
Index 725
Tables
1. Results of Japanese Kamikaze Operations, 13 December 1944-13 January 1945 66
2. Composition of 6th Division Shore Party 123
3. Artillery in Support of Assault on Intramuros 296
4. Artillery Expended in Support of the Assault on Intramuros 297
5. Casualties in Battle for Manila 307
6. Japanese Equipment Captured in Manila Area 308
7. Casualties in Corregidor Operations to March 1945 350
8. U.S. Infantry Casualties in Attack Toward Santa Fe, 21 February-31 May 1945 539
9. U.S. Army Casualties, Eastern Mindanao, Through 15 August 1945 648
MAPS
1. Situation in the Pacific, 15 December 1944 5
2. Invasion of Mindoro, 15 December 1944-31 January 1945 44
3. The Enemy on Luzon, 11 January 1945 95
4. Sixth Army Advance, 12-17 January 1945 116
5. The Capture of San Jose, 1-8 February 1945 191
6. The Capture of Manila: The Drive Toward Intramuros, 13-22 February 1945 276
7. The Capture of Manila: Eliminating the Last Resistance, 23 February-3 March 1945 298
8. ZigZag Pass, 1 February 1945 317
9. ZigZag Pass, 2 February 1945 318
10. ZigZag Pass, 3 February 1945 320
11. ZigZag Pass, 4 February 1945 321
12. ZigZag Pass, 5 February 1945 323
13. ZigZag Pass, 6 February 1945 328
14. Clearing ZigZag Pass: 38th Division, 7-14 February 1945 331
15. Clearing Bataan, 12-21 February 1945 333
16. The Seizure of Wawa Dam, 27 March-28 May 1945 393
17. The Seizure of Ipo Dam, 6-17 May 1945 409
18. To Infanta and Santa Inez, 31 March-18 June 1945 417
19. Troop Dispositions, Northern Luzon, 21 February 1945 451
20. The Capture of Baguio, I Corps, 21 February-26 April 1945 473
21. The Irisan Gorge Area 483
22. To Balete Pass and Santa Fe, 25th Division, 12 March-31 May 1945 521
23. The Fight for Bessang Pass, U.S. Army Forces in the Philippines, North Luzon, 29 March-22 May 1945 550
24. Through Bessang Pass to Cervantes, U.S. Army Forces in the Philippines, North Luzon, 1-15 June 1945 555
25. Pursuit in Northern Luzon, I Corps, 31 May-30 June 1945 565
26. Final Operations in Northern Luzon, XIV Corps, 1 July-15 August 1945 575
27. Clearing Puerto Princesa Harbor, Palawan Island, 28 February-1 March 1945 590
28. The Seizure of Zamboanga, 41st Infantry Division, 10-31 March 1945 594
29. The Sulu Archipelago 598
30. Clearing the Central Visayan Islands, 40th and Americal Divisions, 18 March-28 April 1945 603
31. Clearing the Cebu City Area, Americal Division, 26 March-18 April 1945 611
32. Clearing Eastern Mindanao, X Corps, 17 April-30 June 1945 624
33. Clearing the Davao Area, 24th Infantry Division, 30 April-26 June 1945 631
Maps I-XII are in inverse order inside back cover
I. The Lingayen Asssault, 9-11 January 1945
II. Seizing the Routes 3-11 Junction, 43d Infantry Division, 12-31 January 1945
III. Sixth Army’s Advance, 18-31 January 1945
IV. The Capture of Clark Field, XIV Corps, 24 Jaunary-20 February 1945
V. The Approach to Manila, 1-4 February 1945
VI. The Capture of Manila: the Encirclement, 3-12 February 1945
VII. Corregidor Island
VIII. Turning the SHIMBU Left, 20 February-26 March 1945
IX. Clearing Southern Luzon, XIV Corps, 4 March-11 April 1945
X. Securing the Visayan Passages, 19 February-2 May 1945
XI. Advance Toward Santa Fe, I Corps, 21 February-10 March 1945
XII. Clearing the Salacsac Passes, 32d Infantry Division, 7 March-28 May 1945
ILLUSTRATIONS
Relief Map of the Philippine Islands 20
Landing Unopposed on WHITE Beach, Mindoro 50
Southern Landing Beach at Lingayen 74
Looking Inland, Eastern Shore of Lingayen Gulf 75
Dusk, 9 January 82
Damortis 106
Troops on Hill Overlooking Damortis-Rosario Road 110
Manaoag and Hill 200 Complex 113
LST’s With Causeways 120
Congestion at BLUE Beach 125
First Standard Locomotive in Operation 131
Medium Tanks Support 158th RCT 153
Watching and Waiting 163
Bamban 170
Kembu Defense Area 172
Cave-Pocked Hill 178
Wrecked Japanese Tank-Artillery Column 189
Muñoz 194
The Bridges at Calumpit 213
Plaridel Bridges 214
Tuliahan Bridge 219
Airdrop on Tagaytay Ridge 228
Parañaque 231
Central Manila 238
Japanese Barricade 247
Liberated Internees at Santo Tomas 251
Northern Manila 253
Provisor Island 262
Rizal Baseball Stadium 278
Manila Hotel in Ruins 281
New Police Station 284
Rizal Hall 289
Objective–The Walled City 299
Intramuros After the Battle 301
Legislative Building–Before 304
Legislative Building–After 305
XI Corps Landing Area, Western Luzon 314
Visibility Zero, ZigZag Pass 316
Airdrop, Topside 342
Amphibious Assault, Bottomside 343
Raising the Flag, Corregidor 349
Caballo Island 354
Fort Drum 355
Boarding Fort Drum From LSM 356
Carabao Under Fire 357
Northern Section of Marikina Valley 370
Mts. Pacawagan and Mataba 374
Benchmark 7 383
Terrain Defended by Kobayashi Force 395
6th Division Approach to Wawa Dam 401
Approaches to Ipo Dam 406
Ipo Dam 412
7th Cavalry at Kapatalan Sawmill 419
Lipa After Bombardment 431
Landing at Port Legaspi 442
Bontoc 452
Baguio 455
Villa Verde Trail Near San Nicolas 462
Bagabag 464
Route 11 Winding South From Baguio 469
Galiano Valley Approach to Baguio 470
Route 9 Near Burgos 471
Irisan Gorge 482
Salacsac Pass No. 2 496
Hill 504 500
Villa Verde Approach to Imugan 510
Route 5 Through Balete Pass 519
Neutralizing the Enemy, Norton’s Knob 523
Route 5 South of Santa Fe 537
Upper and Lower Cadsu Ridges 551
105-mm. Howitzer Firing at Extreme Elevation 552
Bessang Pass 554
Attacking Through Oriung Pass 564
Kiangan Valley 576
Terrain in the Last-Stand Area, Asin Valley 578
Yamashita Comes Out of the Valley 579
Dipolog Airstrip 592
Amphibious Landing Area, Zamboanga Peninsula 595
Panay Coastal Plain 604
90-mm. Antiaircraft Gun Firing Ground Support 606
Landing at Cebu 612
Cebu City 613
LCM Carrying Troops, Mindanao River 625
Route 1 628
Clearing Enemy From Sayre Highway 639
Transporting Howitzer by Cable 640
Philippine Guerrilla Scout 657
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