Lupah Sug and the 14th Century World

1299 – Ottoman Empire was founded. It lasted until the establishment of Modern Turkish Republic in 1924.

1302 – In Granada, Death of Muhammad II; succession of Muhammad III.

1305 – Execution of  William Wallace – August 23rd, 1305: “[….] This year [2005] marks the 700th anniversary of the execution of Wallace [in 1305], who led the Scots in their battle to free themselves from English rule. Wallace’s sword was kept at Dumbarton Castle for 600 years. King James IV is said to have paid for it to be given a new hilt in 1505.”

1307 – Persecution of  Knights Templar – “In 1307 King Phillip IV of France was facing bankruptcy and owed the Templars a considerable amount of money. Phillip claimed that the Inquisitor of the realm had informed him that the two-hundred year old order of knights devoted to the protection of the Holy Land and pilgrims was corrupt, infested by Satanists and ritualised homosexuality. On November 22nd, 1307, the Pope issued a bull to all the Christian rulers in Western Europe ordering them to arrest any member of the Order residing in their countries.”

1310 -In the Chughills empire, Kubak overthrown by his brother Isan Buga. In the Marinids empire, Abu Rabeah Sulaiman overthrown by Abu Said Othman. In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers Deccan.

1310 Tuan Maqbalu died in Sulu Island. He was buried at Bud Datu. His graveyard still exist today.

1313 – In the Mongols II Khans empire, Invasion of Syria, the Mongols repulsed. In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Toktu, accession of his nephew Uzbeg.

1314 -Burning of  Jacques de Molay – “In March 1314, after several delays caused by the inability of the Pope fully to to accept the guilt of the Templars, Jacques De Molay [Grand Master of the Order] was offered the chance to submit to the Church and when he refused he was burnt to death at the stake.

1315 – The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315-1322) was the first of a series of large scale crises that struck Europe early in the fourteenth century, causing millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marking a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity during the eleventh to thirteenth centuries.

1316 – In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Khudabanda Ul Jaytu, succession of Abu Said. In the Khiljis empire, Death of Alauddin, accession of Shahabuddin Umar, usurpation of power by Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert.

1320 – Birth of  Hafiz – 1320: “HAFIZ (1320—-1389 A.D.)—A great Persian Saint-poet born at Shiraz. Hafiz is the pen name which means ‘one who knows Koran by heart’. His real name was Shams-ud-Din Mohammed which means ‘Sun of the Religion founded by Prophet Mohammed’. Hafiz enjoys great popularity among the Muslims and Hindus alike both as a saint as well as a poet.

1322 – In the Chughills empire, Dava Temur overthrown by Tarmashirin, who is converted to Islam. In Bengal, Death of Shamsuddin Firuz. The kingdom divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur became the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin became the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti.

1323 – A handbook for Inquisitors called Practica Inquisitionis was published. It was written by the Dominican friar Bernardo Gui, he specifies amongst his targets Muslims and Jews that have been converted and then relapsed. The Medieval Inquisition can be considered to occur between 1235 and 1400.

1325 – Tenochtitlan (Classical Nahuatl: Tenōchtitlan IPA: [te.noːʧ.’ti.tɬan]) (sometimes paired with Mexico as Mexico Tenochtitlan or Tenochtitlan Mexico) was a Nahua altepetl (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico.

1325 – Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta was born in Tangier in 1304. His year of death is uncertain, possibly 1368-69. He was a Moroccan traveller, geographer, botanist and man of the law. At times he was a Qadi or judge; however, he is best known as a traveller and explorer, whose account documents his travels and excursions over a period of almost thirty years, covering some 73,000 miles (117,000 km). These journeys covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world, extending from present-day North and West Africa to Pakistan, India, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and China, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessor and near-contemporary Marco Polo.

1327– In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicaea.

1331 – In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Said Othman, sucession of Abul Hasan. In Bengal,

1337– The period called Hundred Years War between France and England started.

1338 – In the Mongols II Khans empire, Muhammad overthrown, succession of Sati Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler.

1339 – In Kashmir, Death of Sadrud Din, throne captured by a Hindu Udyana Deva. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Burun, accession of Isun Temur. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Lakhnauti-Qadr Khan assassinated and power is captured by the army commander-in-chief who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.

1343-In the Chughills empire, Muhammad overthrown, power captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas an officer of Alauddin murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal.

1345-In the Samudra Pasai empire (Indonesia), Death of Malik al Tahir II, accession of Tahir III. His rule lasted throughout the fourteenth century. In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his capital at Gaur.

1346 – Period of The Black Death, or the Black Plague, also known as the Bubonic Plague, was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, It may have reduced the world’s population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400.

1348 – Jewish Expulsions – “Many people blame the Jews for the Black Plague, which kills thousands in Europe. Consequently, Jews are expelled from many countries. Jewish immigration to Poland increases.”

1348 – “English replaces Latin as the medium of instruction in schools, other than Oxford and Cambridge which retain Latin.”

1358– In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son Sikandar Shah.

1365- In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeat the Christians at the battle of Matiza, the Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks.

1368 – Ming Dynasty of China – “Yu-chang founded the Ming Dynasty in 1368 and in 1371 he drove the Mongols out of Beijing. After more than a century of ruling the Mongolians retreated to the Mongolian heartland. The Ming dynasty was succeeded by the Qing [Manchu] dynasty in 1644.”

1369 – Power captured by Amir Temur. End of the rule of the Chughills. Amir Temur captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq. Succession of his son Abu Baqa Khalid.

1369 – Bible Censorship in Germany – “In 1369, King Charles IV, Emperor of Germany issued an edict that ordered Archbishops to launch ‘inquisitors and confiscate’ Bibles written in the common language. Though valiant efforts by a few to translate portions from the ‘sacred’ Latin Bible did occur, it did not stop official sanctions against them. Government decrees placed the death sentence on any who possessed a Bible in the common language and they were burned to death.”

1371– In the Ottoman Turks empire, Invasion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian territory up to the Balkans annexed by the Turks.

1380– In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Toktamish, a prince of the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Temur’s empire, Amir Temur crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Temur invades Persia and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran.

1380 Sharif Karimul Makhdum arrived in Sulu archipelago. The masjid he built still exist today in Simunul Island.

1390 Rajah Baguinda landed in Buansa, Sulu. He became the Chieftain of the Island that was to become the first organized state in the Philippines.

1391 – Mobs murder up to 50,000 Jews throughout the Spanish kingdom.

1392– In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj ; succession of Muhammad VI.

1394– Amir Temur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr.

1398- In the Amir Temur’s empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman.

1399– In the Amir Temur’s empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in Faraj.

Sources:

http://www.ruhanisatsangusa.org/gloss.htm

http://www.sundayschoolcourses.com/inq/inquisition.htm#Jews%20and%20Moslems

http://www.classicalislam.com/pages/history/6_7_century.html

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