Lupah Sug and The 20th Century World

1898 – American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbour, triggers the the Spanish-American war, the battle of Manila Bay ensues.

1898 – Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan, then declares independence in Kawit, Cavite

1899 – Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War, cedes Philippines to U.S. after payment to Spain by U.S. of $ 20 million. Emilio Aguinaldo declares independence then leads a guerrilla war against U.S.

1901 – U.S. captures Aguinaldo; William Howard Taft arrives as first U.S. governor of Philippines.

1901:Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.

1902 -Philippine Insurrection ends in Luzon; Taft improves economic conditions, settles disputes over church ownership of land, establishes “Pensionado” program, allowing Filipinos to study in U.S., which helped modernize and westernize the country.

1905:The beginning of the Salafiyyah Movement in Paris with it’s main sphere of influence in Egypt.

1907:The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.

1911-First use of aircraft as offensive weapon in Turkish-Italian War. Italy defeats Turks and annexes Tripoli and Libya. Chinese Republic proclaimed after revolution overthrows Manchu dynasty. Sun Yat-sen named president.

1913– Henry Ford develops first moving assembly line.

Bill creating U.S. Federal Reserve System becomes law.

1914:Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.

1914:World War I.

1915Lusitania sunk by German submarine. Second Battle of Ypres. U.S. banks lend $500 million to France and Britain.

1916 – U.S. congress passes the Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and senate.

1916: Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.

1917Balfour Declaration promises Jewish homeland in Palestine. U.S. declares war on Austria-Hungary (Dec. 7).

1918:World War I ends on November 11.

1918:Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.

1919Mahatma Gandhi initiates satyagraha (“truth force”) campaigns, beginning his nonviolent resistance movement against British rule in India.

1921:Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan.  His father was the Sharif of Mecca.

1921:Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq.  His father was the Sharif of Mecca.

1921:Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the “Republic of the Rif”.

1924:The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.

1924:King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.

1928:Turkey is declared a secular state.

1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.

1934 – U.S. congress approves the Tydings-McDuffie Law promising Philippine independence by 1946; transition to independence begins.

1934:War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.

1935 – Filipino people approve constitution creating the Philippine Commonwealth with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president.

1935: Iran becomes the official name of Persia.

1936: Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.

1939:World War II.

1941 – Japanese invades the Philippines, and defeats Gen. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor; Quezon establishes government in exile in the U.S.

1942– Declaration of United Nations signed in Washington (Jan. 1). Nazi leaders attend Wannsee Conference to coordinate the “final solution to the Jewish question,” the systematic genocide of Jews known as the Holocaust. Women’s military services established.

1943:Beginning of Zionist campaign in Palestine.

1944 – Quezon dies in exile; Vice President Sergio Osmeña assumes the presidency; MacArthur returns to the Philippines and lands in Leyte with little resistance.

1945:End of World War II.

1945 – Gen. MacArthur liberates Manila and President Osmeña establishes government.

1946 – The U.S. gave the Philippines independence and Manuel Roxas y Acuña is elected as the first president of the new republic.

1946:Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.

1946 – Sultanate of Sulu was illegally annexed to Philippine Colonial Republic by The United States.

1947:Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.

1948:Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Western-backed Israel.

1953:The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet’s mosque in Medina.

1957:Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.

1957 –  Malaysia gain independence from British.(August 31)

1963– U.S. Supreme Court rules no locality may require recitation of Lord’s Prayer or Bible verses in public schools (June 17).

1963 –  The British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and Sabah (called North Borneo) joined the Federation of Malaysia (September 16).

1964– Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment (June 11).

1965Malcolm X, black-nationalist leader, shot to death at Harlem rally in New York City (Feb. 21).

1965 -Singapore withdrew from the Federation of Malaysia and became an independent republic (August 9).

1965 – Ferdinand E. Marcos is elected by a big majority as president.

1967– Israeli and Arab forces battle; six-day war ends with Israel occupying Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, and east bank of Suez Canal (June 5).

1972 – Martial Law was declared in the Philippines by President Marcos.

1979Shah leaves Iran after year of turmoil (Jan. 16); revolutionary forces under Muslim leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, take over (Feb. 1 et seq.).

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan stirs world protests (Dec. 27).

1979:On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain prophetic Hadith: “A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim.”  They hold the Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks.  Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.

1982– British overcome Argentina in Falklands war (April 2–June 15).

Israel invades Lebanon in attack on P.L.O. (June 4).

1981 – Marcos lifts Martial Law.

1988– Robert C. McFarlane, former National Security Adviser, pleads guilty in Iran-Contra case (March 11).

1989– Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini declares author Salman Rushdie‘s book The Satanic Verses offensive and sentences him to death (Feb. 14).

More than one million in Beijing demonstrate for democracy; chaos spreads across nation (mid-May et seq.).

Thousands killed in Tiananmen Square as Chinese leaders take hard line toward demonstrators (June 4 et seq.).

Berlin Wall is open to West (Nov. 11).

1990World Wide Web debuts, popularizes Internet.

Yugoslav Communists end 45-year monopoly of power (Jan. 22).

Soviet Communists relinquish sole power (Feb. 7).

South Africa frees Nelson Mandela, imprisoned 271/2 years (Feb. 11).

Iraqi troops invade Kuwait and seize petroleum reserves, setting off Persian Gulf War (Aug. 2 et seq.).

East and West Germany reunited (Oct. 3).

Leaders of 34 nations in Europe and North America proclaim a united Europe (Nov. 21).

1991– U.S. and Allies at war with Iraq (Jan. 15).

Soviet Union breaks up after President Gorbachev‘s resignation; constituent republics form Commonwealth of Independent States (Dec. 25).

1992Yugoslav Federation broken up (Jan. 15).

U.S. forces leave Philippines, ending nearly a century of American military presence (Nov. 24).

1992 -December 6 – Hindu activists destroy the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, India, triggering religious violence around the country.

1993 -April 30 – The World Wide Web was born at CERN

1994Serbs‘ heavy weapons pound Sarajevo (Jan. 5–6)

Rwandan genocide of Tutsis by Hutus begins; estimated 800,000 slaughtered in  100 days (April 6).

Nelson Mandela elected president.

“Carlos the Jackal,” international terrorist, captured (Aug. 15

Israel and Jordan sign peace treaty (Oct. 17).

Russians attack secessionist Republic of Chechnya (Dec. 11 et seq.).

1994 – June 15 – Israel and the Vatican establish full diplomatic relations.

1994 – July 25 – Israel and Jordan sign the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, which formally ends the state of war that has existed between the nations since 1948.

1995– Scores killed as terrorist’s car bomb blows up block-long Oklahoma City federal building (April 19); Timothy McVeigh, 27, Army veteran, arrested as suspect (April 21

Million Man March draws hundreds of thousands of black men to capital (Oct. 16)

Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin slain by Jewish extremist at peace rally (Nov. 4). Combatants sign Bosnia peace treaty (Dec. 14).

1995 – July 11 – Bosnian Serbs march into Srebrenica while UN Dutch peacekeepers leave. The Srebrenica massacre was killing of up to an estimated 8,106 Bosniak males, ranging in age from teenagers to the elderly, in the region of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina by a Serb Army of Republika Srpska under general Ratko Mladić including Serbian state special forces.

1996– Violence flares in Jerusalem over Israel opening tourist tunnel (Sept. 24). Taliban Muslim fundamentalists capture Afghan capital (Sept. 27).

1996 -September 27 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

1996 The Philippine Government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) made a peace agreement.

1997– Fire kills 300 pilgrims outside Mecca (April 15).

Russian president Yeltsin signs Chechnya peace treaty (May 12).

Timothy J. McVeigh sentenced to death for Oklahoma City bombing (Aug. 14).

1998– Ramzi Ahmed Yousef sentenced to life for 1993 World Trade Center bombing (Jan. 9).

Serbs battle ethnic Albanians in Kosovo (March 5 et seq.).

Landmark peace settlement, the Good Friday Accord, reached in Northern Ireland (April 10).

Europeans agree on single currency, the euro (May 3).

1998 – November 20 – A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused Osama bin Laden “a man without a sin” in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.

1999– U.S. accuses China of stealing nuclear secrets (March 5)

NATO launches air strikes on Serbia to end attacks against ethnic Albanians in Kosovo (March 24).

“Melissa” computer virus spreads through the Internet (March 27).

NATO bombs mistakenly hit Chinese embassy in Belgrade (May 7).

Islamic militants declare independence for Dagestan and announce holy war against Russia (Aug. 10).

People of East Timor vote for independence from Indonesia (Aug. 31).

World population reaches six billion milestone (Oct. 11).

Tobacco companies admit to harm caused by cigarette smoking (Oct. 13).



Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s