Spanish First Century Under Moors (700-778)

700-The Arabs conquer Tunis.

702- Ethiopians attack Arab shipping in the Red Sea. Arabs in turn occupy Ethiopian seaports.

707-Muslims capture Tangier.

709- Muslims capture Ceuta.

710- Justinian II confirms papal privileges.
Roderic becomes the last Visigoth king over Spain, ruling until 711 CE.

711 -Arab and Berber Moors invade Spain. Visigoth king Roderic is overthrown and Christian rule ends in his region of Spain.

712 -Muslims establish a state in Sind (modern day Pakistan)

716 -Second Arab siege of Constantinople commences.

717- Second Arab siege of Constantinople collapses in failure. Constantinople remains unconquered.

718 -Visigothic prince Pelayo founds a guerilla kingdom (Asturias) in Spanish mountains. The Moors now hold most of the rest of Spain and Portugal, but continue to advance northwards.
Christian forces defeat Moorish army at the battle of Covadonga.

726 -Byzantine Emperor Leo III, perhaps strongly influenced by Islamic taunts, begins the Iconoclast Movement. He believes that the depictions, sculptures, and other images of saints and Apostles are being worshipped in an idolatrous manner. He outlaws such art and orders the destruction of existing artwork. Pope Gregory II opposes his policy.

730 -The power struggle between Emperor and Pope intensifies. Pope Gregory II excommunicates Emperor Leo III

732 -Charles Martel “The Hammer” (Charlemagne’s grandfather and the gris eminence behind the Frankish court as mayor of the palace) meets a Moorish force in Tours. He defeats the Moors, halting the northward advance of Islam into Europe.

733 -Leo III withdraws Byzantine provinces of southern Italy from papal jurisdiction.

737 -Charles Martel “The Hammer” defeats the Moors at Narbonne.

739 -Second Coptic rebellion in Egypt.

741 -Pepin the Short succeeds his father, Charles Martel “The Hammer,” in the important position of Mayor of the Palace.

746 -Greeks retake Cyprus from the Arabs.

751 -Pepin the Short crowned King of the Franks, founding the Carolingian Dynasty.
Arabs defeat Chinese forces at Samarkand.

756 Abd-al-Rahman ibn Mu’awiya establishes Omayyad control in Cordoba, Spain.

767 -Third Coptic revolt commences in Egypt.

771 -Charlemagne inherits Frankish throne from his deceased father, Pepin. He rules until 814.

772 -Charlemagne conquers Saxony and converts it by the sword to Christianity.

Third Coptic revolt in Egypt collapses.

778 -Moors and Basques defeat Franks at Roncesvalles in the border mountains between Spain and France. This leads to the inspiration for The Song of Roland in medieval literature.


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