Transcript of Copy of The Sulu Resistance, 1899-1913

The Bates Treaty

– Sulu Muslims remained unreconciled to colonial rule after cession of the Philippines by Spain to the US in 1898.

* How to contain for a while Muslim resistance while american forces were by eliminating the Muslim resistance while American forces were busy eliminating the Filipino obstacle in Luzin and VIsayas?

– Formal agreement entered into by US with the Muslims. (no intention of recognizing Muslim sovereignty in Moroland)
Bates Treaty was not binding on those who continued to resist, especially those who opposed the Sultan.
* Panglima Hassan defied American threat when he showed non-compliance with the American demand of at least nominal recognition.* “Hassan Uprising” disrupted the stability of the moro province rule in Sulu.

* Amereicans used the rebellion to discredit the Sultanate and to abrogate the Bates Treaty.

* American relentless campaigns against PanglimaHassan from 1903-1905, involving no less than the personal participation of Gov. Leonard Wood (Veterean General comamander of the “rough riders” in the cuban war)

Panglima Hassan, 1903
– Woods campaign agains Hassan included a secret landing through Siit.
– Hassan was captured by Col. Hughes Scott and was to be taken to Jolo.
– Hassan escaped at the first chance and eluded attempts to get him, dead or alive.
– Finally brought confirmed reports of Hassan’s location in the crater of Bud bagsak.
– Sergeant’s Calvin finally ended the career of Sulu’s most colorful leader from the masses.
Hassan’s death did not end the Sulu resistance. Others were inspired to follow the Panglima’s exploit.
Renegade Pala
– He organized his own rebel band and defied American rule from 1905-1906.
– Pala and his band was eliminated destroyed.
Bud Dahu, 1906
– After the suppression of the Pala Uprising, another trouble was brewing in hundreds of muslims trekked towards the crater of an extinct volcano, Bud Dajo.
The trek to Bud Dajo was to become a heroic stand against the American rule.
The Sulu Resistance, 1899-1913
Americans denied the truth of the rumor, it was too late to turn back the tide of a popular feeling that was aggravated by worsening social and economic problems.
– Bud Dajo was formidable and strategic.
– the crater had abundant fresh water and was stocked with food resources.
Governor wood, who was dealing personally with the problem, admitted that the campaign was difficult because of the natural difficulties created by the geographic character or the area.
Muslim barricades of not more than 8 feet along lava ridges and steep precipices would make “fall offs” land on top of trees below.
Woods strategy was, therefore, to avoid such a hazardous operation by appealing to the defenders to surrender while at the same time preparing the military force.
Peace emissaries- Datu Kalbi, Dati Julkanain
Col. Hugh W. Scott of Zamboanga Constabulary and Capt. John White were ordered to proceed to Jolo with 50 men, prominent leaders of Patikul.
– emissaries tried to persuade the defenders to abandon their resistance for two days.
– on the third day, the emissaries returned to Jolo to report the sad news of their futile mission.
Sulu Governor Scott ordered the immediate assault on Dajo. (battle began on march 5, 1906 and lasted up to the morning on march 8)
although the stand was hopeless and the battle one-sided, the muslims wanted to die with at least and enemy at their side.
The attacks on Wood for the massacre were vicious and effective.
the effect of the Dajo massacre on the Filipino independence movement was to blunt the Filipino parliamentary struggle in the US where anti-independence forces in Congress tried to blow up the Muslim attitude to American rule as an evidence of lack of preparedness of self-government.
Jikiri, 1907
– a native Jolo, began his “piratical” attacks on trading vessels or villages early in the American period but he became notorious and known to media.
– after 1907, he had established a staging point in Cabingaan island between the Jolo and Siasi.
Jikiri’s notoriety was based not only on the killings of victims and the carting away of anything of value but also on his obsession to get beautiful women for his booty.
Colonial assessment attributed Jikiri’s obsession for beautiful maidens to some psychological problems caused or heightened by ugly facial features nature had given him since birth.
Jikiri’s attitude to women was a psychological attempt at compensation for personal satisfaction.
Leaders including the sultan, reliable data were gathered by Julius Schucks people on the hideout of Jikiri at Patian island.
– allies took off secretly for Paitan and cornered Jikiri and his band.
– With the death of Jikiri an irritating era of “piracy” came to an end and once again american rule had proven its successful campaign against Sulu.
The year 1909 marked the beginning of political change from the Tasker Bliss to the Moro Province.
Here began the process of another uprising when Panglima Indanan, a powerful leader, was arrested and disarmed, together with his aides and sons.
Bud Bagsak, 1913
Loose firearms had been collected in Jolo, except in Lati and Luuk where the opposition to disarment was strong.
Sabillah attacks on amereican troops became the source of colonial horror.
– more military pressures were exerted on the Lati people but the latter defied the odds and took stand at Bud Bagsak.
– the entire population practically joined the rebellion.
– whole Lati community was defiant against American rule under circumstances where the killings of non-combants was a grim reality.
– finally, many of he non combatants were persuaded to avoid conflict and only the warriors remained determined to fight the colonial forces.
Peace was uncertain because the Lati Muslims had kept themselves in readiness to move to Bagsak in case of any troop movement.
american strategy was to separate the non-combants from the combants.
– the defenders of the movement were surprised by american breach of the agreement.
– the resistance against american arms was furious and heroic but at the same time tragic and senseless because the massacre of Muslim freedom fighters by americans was one sided.
For colonial government, the Bud Bagsak affair ended with pax Americana dawning in Sulu as over 500 rifles were gathered from the island. But undoubtedly, as subsequent events would show, the Tausug will to resist and the love for liberty had remained unsubdued.